Konrad Körding, Joshua Tenenbaum
Many recent studies analyze how data from different modalities can be combined. Often this is modeled as a system that optimally combines several sources of information about the same variable. However, it has long been realized that this information combining depends on the interpretation of the data. Two cues that are perceived by different modalities can have different causal relationships: (1) They can both have the same cause, in this case we should fully integrate both cues into a joint estimate. (2) They can have distinct causes, in which case information should be processed independently. In many cases we will not know if there is one joint cause or two independent causes that are responsible for the cues. Here we model this situation as a Bayesian estimation problem. We are thus able to explain some experiments on visual auditory cue combination as well as some experiments on visual proprioceptive cue integration. Our analysis shows that the problem solved by people when they combine cues to produce a movement is much more complicated than is usually assumed, because they need to infer the causal structure that is underlying their sensory experience.