LVM-Med: Learning Large-Scale Self-Supervised Vision Models for Medical Imaging via Second-order Graph Matching

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper


Duy M. H. Nguyen, Hoang Nguyen, Nghiem Diep, Tan Ngoc Pham, Tri Cao, Binh Nguyen, Paul Swoboda, Nhat Ho, Shadi Albarqouni, Pengtao Xie, Daniel Sonntag, Mathias Niepert


Obtaining large pre-trained models that can be fine-tuned to new tasks with limited annotated samples has remained an open challenge for medical imaging data. While pre-trained networks on ImageNet and vision-language foundation models trained on web-scale data are the prevailing approaches, their effectiveness on medical tasks is limited due to the significant domain shift between natural and medical images. To bridge this gap, we introduce LVM-Med, the first family of deep networks trained on large-scale medical datasets. We have collected approximately 1.3 million medical images from 55 publicly available datasets, covering a large number of organs and modalities such as CT, MRI, X-ray, and Ultrasound. We benchmark several state-of-the-art self-supervised algorithms on this dataset and propose a novel self-supervised contrastive learning algorithm using a graph-matching formulation. The proposed approach makes three contributions: (i) it integrates prior pair-wise image similarity metrics based on local and global information; (ii) it captures the structural constraints of feature embeddings through a loss function constructed through a combinatorial graph-matching objective, and (iii) it can be trained efficiently end-to-end using modern gradient-estimation techniques for black-box solvers. We thoroughly evaluate the proposed LVM-Med on 15 downstream medical tasks ranging from segmentation and classification to object detection, and both for the in and out-of-distribution settings. LVM-Med empirically outperforms a number of state-of-the-art supervised, self-supervised, and foundation models. For challenging tasks such as Brain Tumor Classification or Diabetic Retinopathy Grading, LVM-Med improves previous vision-language models trained on 1 billion masks by 6-7% while using only a ResNet-50.