Intra-Modal Proxy Learning for Zero-Shot Visual Categorization with CLIP

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper


Qi Qian, Yuanhong Xu, Juhua Hu


Vision-language pre-training methods, e.g., CLIP, demonstrate an impressive zero-shot performance on visual categorizations with the class proxy from the text embedding of the class name. However, the modality gap between the text and vision space can result in a sub-optimal performance. We theoretically show that the gap cannot be reduced sufficiently by minimizing the contrastive loss in CLIP and the optimal proxy for vision tasks may reside only in the vision space. Therefore, given unlabeled target vision data, we propose to learn the vision proxy directly with the help from the text proxy for zero-shot transfer. Moreover, according to our theoretical analysis, strategies are developed to further refine the pseudo label obtained by the text proxy to facilitate the intra-modal proxy learning (InMaP) for vision. Experiments on extensive downstream tasks confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposal. Concretely, InMaP can obtain the vision proxy within one minute on a single GPU while improving the zero-shot accuracy from $77.02\%$ to $80.21\%$ on ImageNet with ViT-L/14@336 pre-trained by CLIP.