Test-time Training for Matching-based Video Object Segmentation

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Juliette Bertrand, Giorgos Kordopatis Zilos, Yannis Kalantidis, Giorgos Tolias


The video object segmentation (VOS) task involves the segmentation of an object over time based on a single initial mask. Current state-of-the-art approaches use a memory of previously processed frames and rely on matching to estimate segmentation masks of subsequent frames. Lacking any adaptation mechanism, such methods are prone to test-time distribution shifts. This work focuses on matching-based VOS under distribution shifts such as video corruptions, stylization, and sim-to-real transfer. We explore test-time training strategies that are agnostic to the specific task as well as strategies that are designed specifically for VOS. This includes a variant based on mask cycle consistency tailored to matching-based VOS methods. The experimental results on common benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed test-time training yields significant improvements in performance. In particular for the sim-to-real scenario and despite using only a single test video, our approach manages to recover a substantial portion of the performance gain achieved through training on real videos. Additionally, we introduce DAVIS-C, an augmented version of the popular DAVIS test set, featuring extreme distribution shifts like image-/video-level corruptions and stylizations. Our results illustrate that test-time training enhances performance even in these challenging cases.