Quantum Bayesian Optimization

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Zhongxiang Dai, Gregory Kang Ruey Lau, Arun Verma, YAO SHU, Bryan Kian Hsiang Low, Patrick Jaillet


Kernelized bandits, also known as Bayesian optimization (BO), has been a prevalent method for optimizing complicated black-box reward functions. Various BO algorithms have been theoretically shown to enjoy upper bounds on their cumulative regret which are sub-linear in the number $T$ of iterations, and a regret lower bound of $\Omega(\sqrt{T})$ has been derived which represents the unavoidable regrets for any classical BO algorithm. Recent works on quantum bandits have shown that with the aid of quantum computing, it is possible to achieve tighter regret upper bounds better than their corresponding classical lower bounds. However, these works are restricted to either multi-armed or linear bandits, and are hence not able to solve sophisticated real-world problems with non-linear reward functions. To this end, we introduce the quantum-Gaussian process-upper confidence bound (Q-GP-UCB) algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, our Q-GP-UCB is the first BO algorithm able to achieve a regret upper bound of $\mathcal{O}(\text{poly}\log T)$, which is significantly smaller than its regret lower bound of $\Omega(\sqrt{T})$ in the classical setting. Moreover, thanks to our novel analysis of the confidence ellipsoid, our Q-GP-UCB with the linear kernel achieves a smaller regret than the quantum linear UCB algorithm from the previous work. We use simulations, as well as an experiment using a real quantum computer, to verify that the theoretical quantum speedup achieved by our Q-GP-UCB is also potentially relevant in practice.