Memory Efficient Optimizers with 4-bit States

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Bingrui Li, Jianfei Chen, Jun Zhu


Optimizer states are a major source of memory consumption for training neural networks, limiting the maximum trainable model within given memory budget. Compressing the optimizer states from 32-bit floating points to lower bitwidth is promising to reduce the training memory footprint, while the current lowest achievable bitwidth is 8-bit. In this work, we push optimizer states bitwidth down to 4-bit through a detailed empirical analysis of first and second moments. Specifically, we find that moments have complicated outlier patterns, that current block-wise quantization cannot accurately approximate. We use a smaller block size and propose to utilize both row-wise and column-wise information for better quantization. We further identify a zero point problem of quantizing the second moment, and solve this problem with a linear quantizer that excludes the zero point. Our 4-bit optimizers are evaluated on a wide variety of benchmarks including natural language understanding, machine translation, image classification, and instruction tuning. On all the tasks our optimizers can achieve comparable accuracy with their full-precision counterparts, while enjoying better memory efficiency.