GraphQNTK: Quantum Neural Tangent Kernel for Graph Data

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 35 (NeurIPS 2022) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Yehui Tang, Junchi Yan


Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and Graph Kernels (GKs) are two fundamental tools used to analyze graph-structured data. Efforts have been recently made in developing a composite graph learning architecture combining the expressive power of GNNs and the transparent trainability of GKs. However, learning efficiency on these models should be carefully considered as the huge computation overhead. Besides, their convolutional methods are often straightforward and introduce severe loss of graph structure information. In this paper, we design a novel quantum graph learning model to characterize the structural information while using quantum parallelism to improve computing efficiency. Specifically, a quantum algorithm is proposed to approximately estimate the neural tangent kernel of the underlying graph neural network where a multi-head quantum attention mechanism is introduced to properly incorporate semantic similarity information of nodes into the model. We empirically show that our method achieves competitive performance on several graph classification benchmarks, and theoretical analysis is provided to demonstrate the superiority of our quantum algorithm. Source code is available at \url{}.