Phase retrieval in high dimensions: Statistical and computational phase transitions

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 33 (NeurIPS 2020)

AuthorFeedback Bibtex MetaReview Paper Review Supplemental

Authors

Antoine Maillard, Bruno Loureiro, Florent Krzakala, Lenka Zdeborov√°

Abstract

We consider the phase retrieval problem of reconstructing a $n$-dimensional real or complex signal $\mathbf{X}^\star$ from $m$ (possibly noisy) observations $Y_\mu = | \sum_{i=1}^n \Phi_{\mu i} X^{\star}_i/\sqrt{n}|$, for a large class of correlated real and complex random sensing matrices $\mathbf{\Phi}$, in a high-dimensional setting where $m,n\to\infty$ while $\alpha = m/n=\Theta(1)$. First, we derive sharp asymptotics for the lowest possible estimation error achievable statistically and we unveil the existence of sharp phase transitions for the weak- and full-recovery thresholds as a function of the singular values of the matrix $\mathbf{\Phi}$. This is achieved by providing a rigorous proof of a result first obtained by the replica method from statistical mechanics. In particular, the information-theoretic transition to perfect recovery for full-rank matrices appears at $\alpha=1$ (real case) and $\alpha=2$ (complex case). Secondly, we analyze the performance of the best-known polynomial time algorithm for this problem --- approximate message-passing--- establishing the existence of statistical-to-algorithmic gap depending, again, on the spectral properties of $\mathbf{\Phi}$. Our work provides an extensive classification of the statistical and algorithmic thresholds in high-dimensional phase retrieval for a broad class of random matrices.