Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 29 (NIPS 2016)
It has recently been shown that supervised learning linear classifiers with two of the most popular losses, the logistic and square loss, is equivalent to optimizing an equivalent loss over sufficient statistics about the class: Rademacher observations (rados). It has also been shown that learning over rados brings solutions to two prominent problems for which the state of the art of learning from examples can be comparatively inferior and in fact less convenient: protecting and learning from private examples, learning from distributed datasets without entity resolution. Bis repetita placent: the two proofs of equivalence are different and rely on specific properties of the corresponding losses, so whether these can be unified and generalized inevitably comes to mind. This is our first contribution: we show how they can be fit into the same theory for the equivalence between example and rado losses. As a second contribution, we show that the generalization unveils a surprising new connection to regularized learning, and in particular a sufficient condition under which regularizing the loss over examples is equivalent to regularizing the rados (i.e. the data) in the equivalent rado loss, in such a way that an efficient algorithm for one regularized rado loss may be as efficient when changing the regularizer. This is our third contribution: we give a formal boosting algorithm for the regularized exponential rado-loss which boost with any of the ridge, lasso, \slope, l_\infty, or elastic nets, using the same master routine for all. Because the regularized exponential rado-loss is the equivalent of the regularized logistic loss over examples we obtain the first efficient proxy to the minimisation of the regularized logistic loss over examples using such a wide spectrum of regularizers. Experiments with a readily available code display that regularization significantly improves rado-based learning and compares favourably with example-based learning.