Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 28 (NIPS 2015)
Jacob Andreas, Maxim Rabinovich, Michael I. Jordan, Dan Klein
Calculation of the log-normalizer is a major computational obstacle in applications of log-linear models with large output spaces. The problem of fast normalizer computation has therefore attracted significant attention in the theoretical and applied machine learning literature. In this paper, we analyze a recently proposed technique known as ``self-normalization'', which introduces a regularization term in training to penalize log normalizers for deviating from zero. This makes it possible to use unnormalized model scores as approximate probabilities. Empirical evidence suggests that self-normalization is extremely effective, but a theoretical understanding of why it should work, and how generally it can be applied, is largely lacking.We prove upper bounds on the loss in accuracy due to self-normalization, describe classes of input distributionsthat self-normalize easily, and construct explicit examples of high-variance input distributions. Our theoretical results make predictions about the difficulty of fitting self-normalized models to several classes of distributions, and we conclude with empirical validation of these predictions on both real and synthetic datasets.