Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (NIPS 2013)
Stefan Mathe, Cristian Sminchisescu
Human eye movements provide a rich source of information into the human visual processing. The complex interplay between the task and the visual stimulus is believed to determine human eye movements, yet it is not fully understood. This has precluded the development of reliable dynamic eye movement prediction systems. Our work makes three contributions towards addressing this problem. First, we complement one of the largest and most challenging static computer vision datasets, VOC 2012 Actions, with human eye movement annotations collected under the task constraints of action and context recognition. Our dataset is unique among eyetracking datasets for still images in terms of its large scale (over 1 million fixations, 9157 images), task control and action from a single image emphasis. Second, we introduce models to automatically discover areas of interest (AOI) and introduce novel dynamic consistency metrics, based on them. Our method can automatically determine the number and spatial support of the AOIs, in addition to their locations. Based on such encodings, we show that, on unconstrained read-world stimuli, task instructions have significant influence on visual behavior. Finally, we leverage our large scale dataset in conjunction with powerful machine learning techniques and computer vision features, to introduce novel dynamic eye movement prediction methods which learn task-sensitive reward functions from eye movement data and efficiently integrate these rewards to plan future saccades based on inverse optimal control. We show that the propose methodology achieves state of the art scanpath modeling results.