Anastasis Kratsios, Ievgen Bilokopytov
Modifications to a neural network's input and output layers are often required to accommodate the specificities of most practical learning tasks. However, the impact of such changes on architecture's approximation capabilities is largely not understood. We present general conditions describing feature and readout maps that preserve an architecture's ability to approximate any continuous functions uniformly on compacts. As an application, we show that if an architecture is capable of universal approximation, then modifying its final layer to produce binary values creates a new architecture capable of deterministically approximating any classifier. In particular, we obtain guarantees for deep CNNs, deep ffNN, and universal Gaussian processes. Our results also have consequences within the scope of geometric deep learning. Specifically, when the input and output spaces are Hadamard manifolds, we obtain geometrically meaningful feature and readout maps satisfying our criteria. Consequently, commonly used non-Euclidean regression models between spaces of symmetric positive definite matrices are extended to universal DNNs. The same result allows us to show that the hyperbolic feed-forward networks, used for hierarchical learning, are universal. Our result is also used to show that the common practice of randomizing all but the last two layers of a DNN produces a universal family of functions with probability one. We also provide conditions on a DNN's first (resp. last) few layer's connections and activation function which guarantee that these layer's can have a width equal to the input (resp. output) space's dimension while not negatively effecting the architecture's approximation capabilities.