Tim Meinhardt, Laura Leal-Taixé
Video object segmentation (VOS) describes the task of segmenting a set of objects in each frame of a video. In the semi-supervised setting, the first mask of each object is provided at test time. Following the one-shot principle, fine-tuning VOS methods train a segmentation model separately on each given object mask. However, recently the VOS community has deemed such a test time optimization and its impact on the test runtime as unfeasible. To mitigate the inefficiencies of previous fine-tuning approaches, we present efficient One-Shot Video Object Segmentation (e-OSVOS). In contrast to most VOS approaches, e-OSVOS decouples the object detection task and predicts only local segmentation masks by applying a modified version of Mask R-CNN. The one-shot test runtime and performance are optimized without a laborious and handcrafted hyperparameter search. To this end, we meta learn the model initialization and learning rates for the test time optimization. To achieve an optimal learning behavior, we predict individual learning rates at a neuron level. % a pair of learning rates for the weights tensor and scalar bias of each neuron. Furthermore, we apply an online adaptation to address the common performance degradation throughout a sequence by continuously fine-tuning the model on previous mask predictions supported by a frame-to-frame bounding box propagation. % through changing online appearance -> online adaptation for free. bounding box propagation. e-OSVOS provides state-of-the-art results on DAVIS 2016, DAVIS 2017 and YouTube-VOS for one-shot fine-tuning methods while reducing the test runtime substantially.