Tuomas Kynkäänniemi, Tero Karras, Samuli Laine, Jaakko Lehtinen, Timo Aila
The ability to automatically estimate the quality and coverage of the samples produced by a generative model is a vital requirement for driving algorithm research. We present an evaluation metric that can separately and reliably measure both of these aspects in image generation tasks by forming explicit, non-parametric representations of the manifolds of real and generated data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our metric in StyleGAN and BigGAN by providing several illustrative examples where existing metrics yield uninformative or contradictory results. Furthermore, we analyze multiple design variants of StyleGAN to better understand the relationships between the model architecture, training methods, and the properties of the resulting sample distribution. In the process, we identify new variants that improve the state-of-the-art. We also perform the first principled analysis of truncation methods and identify an improved method. Finally, we extend our metric to estimate the perceptual quality of individual samples, and use this to study latent space interpolations.