Boltzmann Machine Learning Using Mean Field Theory and Linear Response Correction

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 10 (NIPS 1997)

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Hilbert Kappen, Francisco de Borja Rodríguez Ortiz


We present a new approximate learning algorithm for Boltzmann Machines, using a systematic expansion of the Gibbs free energy to second order in the weights. The linear response correction to the correlations is given by the Hessian of the Gibbs free energy. The computational complexity of the algorithm is cubic in the number of neurons. We compare the performance of the exact BM learning algorithm with first order (Weiss) mean field theory and second order (TAP) mean field theory. The learning task consists of a fully connected Ising spin glass model on 10 neurons. We conclude that 1) the method works well for paramagnetic problems 2) the TAP correction gives a significant improvement over the Weiss mean field theory, both for paramagnetic and spin glass problems and 3) that the inclusion of diagonal weights improves the Weiss approximation for paramagnetic problems , but not for spin glass problems.